Saturday, May 23, 2020

The Bog Bodies of Europe - Archeological Finds

The term bog bodies (or bog people) is used to refer to ancient, naturally-mummified human burials recovered from peat bogs in Denmark, Germany, The Netherlands, Britain, and Ireland. The highly acidic peat acts as a remarkable preservative, leaving the clothing and skin intact, and creating poignant and memorable images of people of the past. Fast Facts: Bog Bodies Bog bodies are hundreds of human remains recovered from peat bogs in Europe since the 15th centuryMost date between 800 BCE–400 CEThe oldest dates to the Neolithic (8000 BCE); the most recent 1000 CEThe best-preserved were placed in acidic pools in How Many Bog Bodies Are There? Estimates of the number of bodies pulled from the bog range between 200–700. The reason there is such a great discrepancy is partly that they were first rediscovered in the 15th century and records are shaky. One historic reference dated to 1450 is of a group of peasants in Bonsdà ¶rp, Germany, who found a mans body stuck in a peat bog with a noose around his neck. The parish priest said to leave him there; other instances have occurred where the bodies have been brought to churchyards for reburial, but in this case, the priest said, the elves had clearly placed him there. The oldest bog body is Koelbjerg Man, a skeletalized body recovered from a peat bog in Denmark and dated to the Neolithic (Maglemosian) period about 8,000 BCE. The most recent dates to about 1000 CE, the skeletonized Sedelsberger Dose Man from Germany. By far, most of the bodies were placed in the bogs during the European Iron Age and Roman period, between about 800 BC and CE 400. Why Are They Preserved? The bodies are most fascinating to us because the state of preservation occasionally allows us to see a persons face from so long ago that you might recognize them. Those are very few: many of the bog bodies are only body parts—heads, hands, legs—some have skin with hair but no bones; some are bones and hair but no skin or flesh. Some are only partly preserved. The best-preserved are the ones that were placed in acidic pools of water in a peat bog during the winter. Bogs permit the best state of preservation if: the water is deep enough to prevent attack by maggots, rodents or foxes and adequately oxygen-deficient to prevent bacterial decay;the pool contains sufficient tannic acid to preserver the outer layers; andthe temperature of the water is below 4 degrees Celsius. The evidence clearly shows that the best-preserved bodies were placed in the bogs during the winter—even the contents of the stomachs reveal that, but it was likely that bog burials stemming from ritual sacrifices and executions occurred year-round. Estonian Peat Bog Lake in Winter. APeriamPhotography / iStock / Getty Images Plus Why Were They Put There? In almost all cases, the bodies were deliberately placed into the pools. Many of the bodies were either murdered, or executed for some crime, or ritually sacrificed. Many of them are naked, and sometimes the clothes are placed near the body—also well-preserved. It isnt just bodies that are preserved, the Assendelver Polders Project preserves several houses from an Iron Age village near Amsterdam. According to the Roman historian Tacitus (56–120 CE), there were executions and sacrifices under Germanic law: traitors and deserters were hung, and poor fighters and notorious evil-livers were plunged into marshes and pinned there. Certainly, many of the bog bodies are dated to the period in which Tacitus was writing. Tacitus is generally thought to be a propagandist to one way or another, so his exaggerating the barbaric customs of a subject people is perhaps likely: but there is no doubt that some of the Iron Age burials were hung, and some bodies were pinned into the marshes.   Bog Bodies Denmark: Grauballe Man, Tollund Man, Huldre Fen Woman, Egtved Girl, Trundholm Sun Chariot (not a body, but from a Danish bog all the same) Germany: Kayhausen Boy UK: Lindow Man Ireland: Gallagh Man Selected Sources Carlie, Anne, et al. Archaeology, Forensics and the Death of a Child in Late Neolithic Sweden. Antiquity 88.342 (2014): 1148–63.  Fredengren, Christina. Unexpected Encounters with Deep Time Enchantment. Bog Bodies, Crannogs and ‘Otherworldly’ Sites. The Materializing Powers of Disjunctures in Time. World Archaeology 48.4 (2016): 482–99.  Granite, Guinevere. Understanding the Death and Burial of Northern European Bog Bodies. Diversity of Sacrifice: Form and Function of Sacrificial Practices in the Ancient World and Beyond. Ed. Murray, Carrie Ann. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2016. 211–22.  Nielsen, Nina H., et al. Diet and Radiocarbon Dating of Tollund Man: New Analyses of an Iron Age Bog Body from Denmark. Radiocarbon 60.5 (2018): 1533–45.  Therkorn, L. L., et al. An Early Iron Age Farmstead: Site Q of the Assendelver Polders Project. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 50.1 (1984): 351–73.  Villa, Chiara, an d Niels Lynnerup. Hounsfield Units Ranges in CT-Scans of Bog Bodies and Mummies. Anthropologischer Anzeiger 69.2 (2012): 127–45.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Portuguese Colonization Of Africa During The 16th And 16th...

The Portuguese conquests in Africa in the 15th and 16th century has expanded our knowledge of the world around us and was extremely important to Portuguese operations. What made this truly remarkable was the sheer scale of the land that they had taken, as it was twenty-three times bigger than Portugal itself but the importance of trade was the most distinguishing feature in Portuguese colonial cities as the Portuguese created a huge trade complex to centralise their African trade, and the sheer scale of operations identified the focus on the trading possibilities of African colonial cities. Another feature of the Portuguese colonial cities in Africa was the importance of religion and spreading the Christian faith across the globe, just like the Spanish in South America. However, trade should be considered the most important feature of these colonial cities as it provided the Portuguese with the necessary commodities needed to become a major power in Europe and allowed the Portuguese to gain a foothold in the New World through these resources. Firstly, the economic features of the Portuguese influence in Africa was essential to the Portuguese as it allowed them to access different parts of the world and were able to acquire new commodities that were in demand, especially gold, textiles and salt. These were decisive commodities amongst European nations, and masses of these products signified mass wealth and power in the world as well as Europe. The West African Trade was ofShow MoreRelatedImpact Of Colonia On Indian Ocean And The Trans Atlantic Trading Systems848 Words   |  4 PagesEuropean traders in the Indian Ocean and trans-Atlantic trade systems. The origin of international trade in the Indian Ocean stemmed from the arrival of the Portuguese, which sought out gold and loot to be taken from the Swahili peoples. In this manner, the Swahili were not technologically advanced enough to resist modern weapons of the Portuguese, which made them vulnerable to attack and looting of harbor city-sates. In comparison, the trans- Atlantic trade of the English and Spanish sought to commoditizeRead MoreThe New World : The Mundus Novus1122 Words   |  5 PagesBefore any civilized country was established in the New World, the Mundus Novus, there were not many people from the 15th century that ever thought traveling across oceans could be possible nor did they know much about the world beyond their own communities. So, why did they take to the seas? Many historians believe this was motivated by the chance to explore, learn, and understand other cultures. The most willing to expand are the ones who will strive to succeed in the end. Little did they knowRead MoreEssay on The Columbian Exchange1075 Words   |  5 Pagesand Spain to break the grip by finding an Atlantic route. Portugal took the lead in the Atlantic exploration because of the reconquest from the Muslims, good finances, and their long standing seafaring traditions. In dealing with agriculture, The Portuguese discovered Brazil on accident, but they c oncentrated on the Far East and used Brazil as a ground for criminals. Pernambuco, the first area to be settled, became the world’s largest sugar producer by 1550. Pernambuco was a land of plantations andRead MorePidgins and Creoles Essay1142 Words   |  5 Pagesserve a single simplistic purpose, they usually die out. The oldest known pidgin is called ‘Sabir’ which was based on Mediterranean languages and used during the crusades in the eleventh to thirteenth centuries. ( ref : English – history, diversity and change chapt 5 p206) In the nineteenth century, when slaves from Africa were brought over to North America to work on the plantations, they were separated from the people of their community and mixed with people of variousRead MoreThe American Civil War And The Civil Rights Movement901 Words   |  4 Pages he institution of slavery existed in the United States from the early 17th century until 1865. It existed in all the English mainland colonies and came to dominate agricultural production in all the states from south of Maryland (Piersen 1996: 21). Illustrating its commonality, eight of the first twelve presidents of the United States were slave owners (Piersen 1996: 24). However, the controversy over slavery was a hotly debated topic in American society, leading eventually to the American CivilRead MoreColonialization And Religion Of Barbados1198 Words   |  5 Pagesin the Americas due to prime eastern location. It was the only island that did not change hands during the colonial period. The culture of Barbados was shaped by the syncretization of colonialism and imperialism by use of religion and cultural resistance. Pre-colonization, Barbados was a small island inhabited by Amerindian, American Indians, with settlement dates from the fourth and seventh centuries AD. Though there is some evidence to suggest that the island was settled in the second millenniumRead MoreBrazil1031 Words   |  5 Pagesmillion natives who were divided into several tribes, prior to Portugal’s arrival in the 16th century (http://www.lonelyplanet.com/brazil/history). After Portugal’s arrival, there was a cultural shock between both cultures. The Portuguese thought they were superior; took advantage of the innocence of the natives, enslaved, and tried converting them to Christianity. Many events followed the arrival of the Portuguese and finally, after over 300 years of being Portugal’s colony, Brazil became independentRead MoreApush - American History: a Survey Chapter 1 Outline Essay3138 Words   |  13 Pagesnomadic warrior tribe from the North. * The Aztecs formed elaborate administrative, educational, and medical systems-their religion required human sacrifice. * The Aztec capital was Tenochtitlan, with one of the largest populations of any city during the time, with impressive buildings. III. The Civilizations of the North * Civilizations in the North were not as elaborate as those in the South. * Societies were mainly based on fishing, gathering, fishing or a combination of the threeRead MoreCaribbean Economy and Slavery: the West African Coast Was the Source of the Caribbean’s Labour from the 1500s to the 1800s Much to the Detriment of Africa’s Development and Progress. Justify This Statement Outlining1915 Words   |  8 Pagesexamples of institutionalized slavery, as were the Greeks and Romans, the Maya, Inca and Aztecs. Prior to African enslavement, Europe practiced slavery for centuries (for example, the enslavement of the Slavs, from which the word â€Å"slave† is derived, in the Middle Ages).[2] New World Europeans began importing slaves from Africa in the 16th Century (continuing a process of slave trade begun in ancient Egypt[3]). In this slave trade, people were taken from great population reservoirs. Population shiftsRead MoreColonization of Africa1542 Words   |  7 PagesConquests, colonization, the slave trade, and the spread of consumerist society have shaped and formed the grounds for which developing countries find themselves today. The countries of the developing world subjected to colonialism have been faced with a number of impediments throughout the years which have hindered social and economic growth, and laid the foundation which bred cultural conflict. Colonialism, however, too bought Western civilization and all its attractions to underdeveloped countries

Monday, May 11, 2020

“I Like You.” “I Like You Too.” This Seemly Normal...

â€Å"I like you.† â€Å"I like you too.† This seemly normal conversation between couples actually comes from a Japanese dating simulation app between the user and the game’s artificial intelligence. In these romantic gaming apps, users have the ability to craft their ideal girlfriend or boyfriend by changing any personality or appearance that the users may want. Technology has offered the possibility of a perfect virtual love relationship. However, virtual relationships usually do not have a good reputation because they can cause negative impacts to those who play this kind of app. For example, the app may isolate the users from their world and peers by staying at home using the app day and night, and also cause users to live in this â€Å"sweet†¦show more content†¦Even though this movie may have raised concerns about an evolving Siri or Cortana like AI that can self-learn and act like humans, there are challenges for this kind of AI to exist. Conscio usness itself is difficult to achieve. A difference between humans and AI is that humans have brains. A neuroscientist explains that â€Å"†¦brains and computers work very differently. Both compute, but only one understands—and there are some very compelling reasons to believe that this is not going to change. It appears that there is a more technical obstacle that stands in the way of [conscious] A.I. ever becoming a reality.† Unless humans find a way to implement a brain into an artificial intelligence, a creation like Samantha would be hardly achievable. Furthermore, there are also other challenges that are not related to technical reasons. Even if an assumption is made that this kind of AI existed, the biggest obstacle that it will face is in terms of privacy which is shown from the movie Her. A conscious AI unlike an unconscious AI is not totally controllable. In the film, Theodore is surprised that Samantha knows his upcoming divorce even though he has never told her about it. Samantha gets this information by reading his email without his permission. This shows the potential damage thatShow MoreRelatedThe Grapes Of Wrath By John Steinbeck3583 Words   |  15 Pagesmarried his second wife Gwyndolyn Conger with whom he had two children. Then in 1950 he married Elaine Scott that same year he wrote Burning Bright. Two years later in 1952 Steinbeck wrote another novel called East of Eden; He continued writing stories like: The winter of our Discontent in 1961 and Travels with Charley: In Search of America in 1962 that same year the b rilliant author won Nobel Prize for Literature for his imaginative and realistic writing. (http://www.biography.com/people/john-steinbeck-9493358#later-life)

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Risk Identification Is An Underdeveloped Art - 1786 Words

Risk identification is an underdeveloped art† Discuss and include an overview of risk identification aids and techniques in your answer. Introduction:- Risk is a vital necessity in which both change and innovation occur and in an everlasting developing economy businesses must change, adapt, and innovate in either or service or goods. However, like art, risk takes time and effort in calculating and producing a meaningful quantity out of in which you have to take the probability of a bad scenario occurring and also the amount of damage that it will create to the firm. However saying this risk depends a lot on the type of person you are if you are risk averse or not, people who are risk averse tend to go away from risk, however, this may cause a loss of opportunity in which the firm could have created a good profit. On the other hand if someone is too risk driven then that also could be very harmful to the business. It is clear that it is in fact very hard to identify when risks should and should not be taken, thinking of the word â€Å"undeveloped† risk is something that has always been thought of, however, when did people start actually start feeling the impact of risk, mainly during the 2007 economic crash that was due to people taking too much risk with the mortgages market in which due to the amount of money they were profiting from moral hazard and adverse selection came into play and mortgages were basically being handed out even to people who should not have had theShow MoreRelatedDukes Talent Identification Program1254 Words   |  5 PagesGullen Essay Children are natural learners using curiosity as an engine for their studies. Imagine what we are capable as students if we are allowed to study what we love and enjoy? Education in underdeveloped countries has attracted significant attention in recent years from educational policy makers around the world. It is considered a key social factor for economic prosperity as well as social progress in the fields of gender and racial equality. The Millennium Development Goals and TargetsRead MoreChild Sexual Exploitation3343 Words   |  14 Pageseducation of its inhabitants and insufficient or non existent laws to govern crimes of this nature. PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The project was organized around the following research objectives: 1. Identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE 2. Identification of groups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children including pimps, traffickers, and adult customers of children for sex; RESEARCH METHODS The investigation was confronted with a wideRead MoreChild Sexual Exploitation3353 Words   |  14 Pagesmarginal education of its inhabitants and insufficient or non existent laws to govern crimes of this nature. PROJECT GOALS AND OBJECTIVES The project was organized around the following research objectives: 1. Identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE 2. Identification of groups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children including pimps, traffickers, and adult customers of children for sex; RESEARCH METHODS The investigation was confronted with a wide rangeRead Moredistribution in banking1958 Words   |  8 Pageschannel work Risk taking: assuming the risks of carrying out the channel work MAJOR DISTRIBUTION CHANNELS IN BANKING BUSINESS: Traditional channel: Branch network: Branch is a type of traditional channels associated with the headquarter system and facilities in certain locations. Bank branch is a place where a bank offers a wide array of face-to-face and automated services to its customer. 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The emphasis plies in the ownership of physical assets. It is generally a once-and-for-all sale of a state –owned asset, in this case the government always retains no governance control and no operational risk, though usually retains the regulatory control over the assets. The rationale of the private sector hinges on theRead MoreReducing The Primary Cesarean Section Rate3760 Words   |  16 PagesHealthy childbirth is defined as a safe, natural process that rarely requires medical intervention (Goer Romano, 2012). The medical model of care, however, often includes interventions that are not supported by the evidence and can increase a woman’s risk of having a cesarean section. These intrusions into labor and birth often lead to what has been called the â€Å"cascade of interventions† (DeClercq, Sakala, Corry, Applebaum, Heerrlich, 2013). This cascade has resulted in cesarea n section becoming theRead MoreRBEC and K-124487 Words   |  18 Pagesreality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand. Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency across all levels and subjects. Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum. BUILDING PROFICIENCY THROUGH LANGUAGE (MOTHER TONGUE-BASED MULTILINGUAL EDUCATION) Students are able to learn bestRead More023 Understand Child and Young Person development6353 Words   |  26 Pagestouched). Piaget ´s theory influenced the practice by having a  ´child-centred ´ approach. In our setting, for example, we make regular observations on what our children are interested in and what they like to play/ do. 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Poem Analysis “Out, Out” Free Essays

Poem Analysis: â€Å"Out, Out-† In the poem, â€Å"Out, Out-â€Å", author Robert Frost starts off his poem by giving an inanimate object, the buzzsaw, a sense of life. Using the literary device, Personification, the buzz saw is being written with characteristics a curious and rather playful child. The buzzsaw acts like once hears the young man’s mother call for supper time, that it wants to eat, so eats the young man’s hand. We will write a custom essay sample on Poem Analysis â€Å"Out, Out† or any similar topic only for you Order Now The buzzsaw takes (Cuts Off) the hand in a rather subtle demeanor, but in truth, it would be a very graphic to behold. Throughout the poem, everything is written in a peaceful and quite tone, even during the violent and gruesome ones to. To add to the fact of the buzzsaw is being personified in the story, the buzzsaw seems to only attack when the mother calls all for supper. The buzzsaw acts like it knows what the meaning of supper time is. Another literary device used in this poem is the process of along with the use of otomotapia(s). Using repetition first to deliver emphasis to the reader of the sounds that buzzsaw would be making, and then the actual sound being written/sounded out in an otomotapia base. The otomotapia in the story would be the grinding sounds made the buzzsaw ripping the through the poor young man’s arm. This quote from the story pretty much sums all that I describe above; â€Å"The saw snarled and rattled, snarled and rattled†¦Ã¢â‚¬  and it continues about three more times over and over. The use of the sound effects gives the once playful buzzsaw a more animalistic approach, making it seem like it is hungry after hearing the key word â€Å"supper†. To conclude, the literary devices used in Robert Frost’s poem are mostly to emphasis and give life to once lifeless piece of machinery. The story, rather bloody and saddening, is a well written example of poetry and depth behind each and every letter/word. The analysis is still to be assessed, but this all gives basic understanding as to what meant behind his more obvious literary devices. How to cite Poem Analysis â€Å"Out, Out†, Essay examples

Abby stop it! Essay Example For Students

Abby stop it! Essay The second lie is possibly one of the most significant events in the play. Towards the end of Act three, during his court hearing, John Proctor finally admits to his adulterous affair with Abigail. The court wished to investigate this affair and John informs them that Elizabeth is aware of it, so they ask her to enter the courtroom and testify. However, she is not aware that he has confessed and she is told not to make eye contact with either John or Abigail. Look at me only, not at your husband  The court then question Elizabeth as to whether Abigail, the Proctors former servant, was dismissed for her adultery with John. She prevaricates for a long time. This scene is full of dramatic tension, especially when we see Elizabeth panicking as to whether or not she should condemn her husband. When she is asked the question Is your husband a lecher? she eventually answers no. Unbeknown to her, the first lie she has ever made, has condemned her husband to almost certain execution. In the book we do not get the full feeling of the tension in the courtroom, however, in the film the scene involves long pauses and we see Elizabeth desperately trying to find the answer in Johns eyes. This lie condemns John, because he was attempting to show the jury that Abigail is not as innocent as she appears. Unfortunately, this plan works against him and instead, he is seen to be the liar.  Statements of truth are also very important to this play. The first major incident is when Mary Warren tells the truth about what really happened in the woods.  That were pretence Sir I never saw no spirits! She starts confidently and the court appears to be believing her until Abigail and the other girls try to break Mary down by chanting everything she says. Abigail pretends to see a bird, supposedly Marys spirit, but the other girls believe it is really there and they become wrapped up in the hysteria.  Her claws, shes stretching her claws  The girls then repeat both her words and her actions until she breaks down. This is both frustrating and upsetting for Mary as she knows there is no witchcraft in Salem, but she also is aware that Abigail is very convincing and the jury will suspect the supernatural.  Abby stop it! Abby stop it!  Eventually Mary gives in to the other girls and she accuses John Proctor of compacting with the Devil much to his surprise. She says that he came to her at night and he asked her to sign the Devils book.  Youre the Devils man  Proctor goes temporarily insane and he tries to take Danforth down with him. He says that he should never have started the affair with Abigail, and if he had not Abigail would not have started all the witch-trials. He also said he should have owned up sooner. However, he believes that Danforth is as much to blame because he has always known deep down, that Abigail is guilty and it is all just pretence. God damns our kind especially, and we will burn, we will burn together!  The last scene of the play is very powerful and emotional. This scene shows that Johns refusal to lie in fact costs him his life. The jury, Danforth and Hathorne, want to get as many people as possible to confess. This is because people like John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse are respected in Salem, and if other villagers found out it was fraud, the court would lose its good reputation. However, they do not wish to sign the confession because they have high principles and would rather die than lie again. Hale asks Elizabeth to beg her husband to confess and lie to the court: .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .postImageUrl , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:hover , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:visited , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:active { border:0!important; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:active , .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498 .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u35168b4e1f2bd15b6b65e0a74c43c498:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Frida Kahlo Culture 1B EssayI beg you, woman, prevail upon your husband to confess. Let him give his lie.  She tells him that she will talk to him but it is not for her to decide as to what he tells the court.  I think that be the Devils argument.  Elizabeth goes to see John before his execution to try and get him to confess to witchcraft. This scene, especially in the film version, shows great emotion from both characters as they discuss what he should do. Although John wishes to live and grow old with his family, he is reluctant to live a lie. Elizabeth tells him that she is unable to judge him, and whatever he does, she will still respect him: Whatever you will do, it is a good man does itI am not your judge, I cannot be.  When Hathorne comes to see if Proctor will sign the confession, he eventually says yes. He tries to get John to tell of people he has seen with the devil, but he will tell nothing. When Rebecca Nurse enters we see the shame on his face, as he realises how he is betraying her and God by lying about witchcraft. She shows her shame of Proctor when she says she will not sign the confession: Why, it is a lie, it is a lie; how may I damn myself.  He reluctantly signs the confession but it is short lived. When Danforth tries to take the paper away to place in the village, John starts to have second thoughts. He realises he could not live with being a liar and he could not teach his children how to behave when he had sinned so greatly:  I have three children-how may I teach them to walk like men in the world, and I sold my friends. He wishes to regain his self-respect and he wants his name to be valued in the village. However he knows he cannot have this as long as his confession is held high in Salem. He rips up the paper and although we see him weep, we can see that he is content with his decision. This last part of the scene shows how many people are brave enough to die for what they believe in and the emotion is high. He marches with Rebecca Nurse to the gallows and we see her bravery for she believes they are going on to a better life: Let you fear nothing! Another judgement waits us all!  The rest of the scene is seen to the beat of drumbeats. Hale asks Elizabeth to stop John, but she knows he has done what he thought was the right thing to do and she has no right to take it from him.  He have his goodness now. God forbid I take it from him! The last thing we see of the play is the accused villagers, including John and Rebecca, chanting the Lords Prayer on the gallows. This is very effective because we hear them stop one by one as they are pushed over to hang. Overall, this scene shows that sometimes doing the right thing costs a price, even death. There is very different staging in the film and the book. In the play, all the scenes were set inside, which gives a strong sense of claustrophobia. There are just four scenes, and each involves dark rooms with high windows. This shows that the play is gloomy and it could relate to the cold and dark characters involved, such as Abigail. However, in the film, there are both inside and outside scenes. The insides were dull and dreary whereas when it was outside the skies were blue. This reduces the tension and it creates a greater contrast. In addition, pathetic fallacy was used, so when the play was ominous, the weather reflected this and the skies were dark.  Ã‚  The title of the play, The Crucible, is very significant and relates to the content. A crucible is a small dish used to break down chemicals in. This could be .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .postImageUrl , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:hover , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:visited , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:active { border:0!important; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:active , .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(https://artscolumbia.org/wp-content/plugins/intelly-related-posts/assets/images/simple-arrow.png)no-repeat; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234 .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u3e5228512737c653bd2db73db8c21234:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Women's Charity Organisation Essaymetaphorically describing how the people in the play were tested until they broke down and confessed. Although the play was set many years ago, even today we still lie and corrupt in order to protect ourselves or gain an unfair advantage. For example, because of the New York terrorist attack which occurred in September, it is now open for people to accuse others who they may not like of being involved. This is mainly happening to Muslims and the accusers are probably racists. Nevertheless, people today are still happy to accuse others to help themselves.

Thursday, April 30, 2020

True Believers Essays (669 words) - Intention, Philosophy Of Mind

True Believers The intentional strategy is in Dennetts sense, the most efficient tool for predicting behaviour. However, for now I will ignore its comparison with other theories and limit my discussion to the processes of the intentional strategy. It is important to note, that Dennetts methods differ from the Identity Theorists and the Functionalists. Where the former asserts that the mind is precisely the same thing as the brain, and the latter attaches mental states to their function or design, intentionalism reflects the almost common-sense approach to identifying the mind, and formulates the theory upon the sheer volume of evidence in its favour. For example, one might claim that s/he knows that X is alive because its behaviour became erratic when its food dish was empty. Closer examination of what s/he did would surely reveal that they implicitly presumed that X felt hungry, had the desire for nourishment, and believed that acting in a strange fashion would grant attention and the solely neede d food. Another more important belief was the one that X would act more or less as s/he would in the given situation- as a rational agent. Dennett works from similarly basic model and develops it into an imperfect yet notably effective method for predicting behaviour. With both Identity and Functionalist theories in the mainstream, Dennett attempts to provide a better explanation of the mid- one which is neither too rigid nor too broad. Dennetts method involves two main parts, the first being attribution of particular beliefs X would have in its given situation. The possible attributed beliefs are notably quite a bit greater in volume than the somewhat fleeing metaphysical or cosmological ones, which immediately spring to mind. Not only do these beliefs include every minor detail our X may have stored in memory, but also every desire they may have, such as the desire to eat if they are hungry (founded upon the desire to satisfy their hunger and the belief that eating will ease that desire). Secondly, it must be assumed that our subject is what Dennett calls a rational agent. Meaning, simply that X will act upon some internal connection between its beliefs and desires. That faculty of reason does not need be as developed as in the Vulcan sense, but must show some connection between beliefs and desires along the lines of desires based on beliefs and action based on desires. Moreover, one could not begin to try and predict the behaviour of an irrational being unless it is on the basis of why it is acting irrationally or why it is broken. Through this stance Dennett can treat almost any given subject as an intentional one, down to the beanbag chair, which has the desire to mould itself to my body when I sit on it. However, it is the subject of another paper to distinguish between subjects, which truly possess belief, and those that do not. Previously I have described the necessary premise that most ascribed beliefs must be true, and now I will attempt to defend the validity of that point. Dennett, makes his own argument in this case immediately. Foremost, beliefs included in this statement include so many minute details which the question of whether people believe them or not seems meaningless. One could go on for hours merely describing themselves, without delving into the hotly debated issues of whether abortion is right or wrong. Although questionable beliefs are the most active in our minds they are not the most numerous. Secondly, Dennett defends himself be describing false beliefs as being rooted in true ones. Case in point, if one falsely believes that the home team lost the game last night, that belief may be based on the fact that a friend had misinformed him, though s/he believed that friend often read the newspaper in the morning, paid attention to the sports page, and had no reason to lie. Our subject would hardly believe the friend if they were known liar. Philosophy